Further reading

Binnington, K. & Retnakaran, A. (eds.) (1991) Physiology of the Insect Epidermis. CSIRO Publications, Melbourne.

Carroll, S.B. (1995) Homeotic genes and the evolution of arthropods and chordates. Nature 376, 479–85.

Chapman, R.F. (1998) The Insects. Structure and Function, 4th edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Daly, H.V. (1985) Insect morphometrics. Annual Review of Entomology 30, 415–38.

Danks, H.V. (ed.) (1994) Insect Life Cycle Polymorphism: Theory, Evolution and Ecological Consequences for Seasonality and Diapause Control. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.

Dingle, H. (1996) Migration. The Biology of Life on the Move. Oxford University Press, New York.

Hayes, E.J. & Wall, R. (1999) Age-grading adult insects: a review of techniques. Physiological Entomology 24, 1–10. Heming, B.-S. (2003) Insect Development and Evolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Kerkut, G.A. & Gilbert, L.I. (eds.) (1985) Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, Vols. 7 & 8, Endocrinology I and II. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Moran, N.A. (1992) The evolution of aphid life cycles. Annual Review of Entomology 37, 321–48.

Nagy, L. (1998) Changing patterns of gene regulation in the evolution of arthropod morphology. American Zoologist 38, 818–28.

Nijhout, H.F. (1999) Control mechanisms of polyphenic development in insects. BioScience 49, 181–92.

Parmesan, C., Ryrholm, N., Stefanescu, C. et al. (1999) Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming. Nature 399, 579–83.

Pender, M.P. (1991) Locust phase polymorphism and its endocrine relations. Advances in Insect Physiology 23, 1–79.

Resh, V.H. & Cardé, R.T. (eds.) (2003) Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press, Amsterdam. [Particularly see articles on cold/heat protection; development, hormonal control of; diapause; embryogenesis; imaginal discs; molting.]

Sander, K., Gutzeit, H.O. & Jäckle, H. (1985) Insect embryo- genesis: morphology, physiology, genetical and molecular aspects. In: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, Vol. 1: Embryogenesis and Reproduction (eds. G.A. Kerkut & L.I. Gilbert), pp. 319–85. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Sehnal, F. (1985) Growth and life cycles. In: Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, Vol. 2: Postembryonic Development (eds. G.A. Kerkut & L.I. Gilbert), pp. 1–87. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Sutherst, R.W. & Maywald, G.F. (1985) A computerized system for matching climates in ecology. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 13, 281–99.

Worner, S.P. (1988) Ecoclimatic assessment of potential establishment of exotic pests. Journal of Economic Entomo- logy 81, 9731–83.

Papers and references in European Journal of Entomology (1996) 93(3), especially: Bale, J.S., Insect cold hardiness: A matter of life and death (pp. 369–82); Lee, R.E., Costanzo, J.P., & Mugano, J.A., Regulation of supercooling and ice nucleation in insects (pp. 405–18).

Chapter 6