5.10. Atypical modes of reproduction

Sexual reproduction (amphimixis) with separate male and female individuals (gonochorism) is the usual mode of reproduction in insects, and diplodiploidy, in which males as well as females are diploid, occurs as the ancestral system in almost all insect orders.

However, other modes are not uncommon. Various types of asexual reproduction occur in many insect groups; development from unfertilized eggs is a widespread phenomenon, whereas the production of multiple embryos from a single egg is rare. Some species exhibit alternating sexual and asexual reproduction, depending on season or food availability. A few species possess both male and female reproductive systems in one individual (hermaphroditism) but self-fertilization has been established for species in just one genus.

Chapter 5