Further reading

Askew, R.R. (1971) Parasitic Insects. Heinemann, London.

Beckage, N.E. (1998) Parasitoids and polydnaviruses. Bio- Science 48, 305–11.

Byers, G.W. & Thornhill, R. (1983) Biology of Mecoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 28, 303–28.

Eggleton, P. & Belshaw, R. (1993) Comparisons of dipteran, hymenopteran and coleopteran parasitoids: provisional phylogenetic explanations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 48, 213–26.

Feener, D.H. Jr & Brown, B.V. (1997) Diptera as parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 42, 73–97.

Fleming, J.G.W. (1992) Polydnaviruses: mutualists and pathogens. Annual Review of Entomology 37, 401–25.

Gauld, I. & Bolton, B. (eds.) (1988) The Hymenoptera. British Museum (Natural History)/Oxford University Press, London. Godfray, H.C.J. (1994) Parasitoids: Behavioural and Evolutionary Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Halaj, J. & Wise, D.H. (2001) Terrestrial trophic cascades: how much do they trickle? The American Naturalist 157, 262–81.

Hassell, M.P. & Southwood, T.R.E. (1978) Foraging strategies of insects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9, 75–98.

Lyal, C.H.C. (1986) Coevolutionary relationships of lice and their hosts: a test of Fahrenholz’s Rule. In: Coevolution and Systematics (eds. A.R. Stone & D.L. Hawksworth), pp. 77–91. Systematics Association, Oxford.

Marshall, A.G. (1981) The Ecology of Ectoparasitic Insects. Academic Press, London.

New, T.R. (1991) Insects as Predators. The New South Wales University Press, Kensington.

Quicke, D.L.J. (1997) Parasitic Wasps. Chapman & Hall, London. Resh, V.H. & Cardé, R.T. (eds.) (2003) Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press, Amsterdam. [Particularly see articles on host seeking by parasitoids; Hymenoptera; hyperparasitism; parasitoids; predation and predatory insects.]

Schoenly, K., Cohen, J.E., Heong, K.L. et al. (1996) Food web dynamics of irrigated rice fields at five elevations in Luzon, Philippines. Bulletin of Entomological Research 86, 451–66.

Stoltz, D. & Whitfield, J.B. (1992) Viruses and virus-like entit- ies in the parasitic Hymenoptera. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 1, 125–39.

Sullivan, D.J. (1987) Insect hyperparasitism. Annual Review of Entomology 32, 49–70.

Symondson, W.O.C., Sunderland, K.D. & Greenstone, M.H. (2002) Can generalist predators be effective biocontrol agents? Annual Review of Entomology 47, 561–94.

Vinson, S.B. (1984) How parasitoids locate their hosts: a case of insect espionage. In: Insect Communication (ed. T. Williams), pp. 325–48. Academic Press, London.

Whitfield, J.B. (1992) Phylogeny of the nonaculeate Apocrita and the evolution of parasitism in the Hymenoptera. Journal of Hymenopteran Research 1, 3–14.

Whitfield, J.B. (1998) Phylogeny and evolution of host—parasitoid interactions in Hymenoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 43, 129–51.

Chapter 13