Further reading

Regional texts for identifying insects


Picker, M., Griffiths, C. & Weaving, A. (2002) Field Guide to Insects of South Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. Scholtz, C.H. & Holm, E. (eds.) (1985) Insects of Southern Africa. University of Pretoria, Pretoria.


CSIRO (1991) The Insects of Australia, 2nd edn. Vols. I and II. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.


Richards, O.W. & Davies, R.G. (1977) Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology, 10th edn. Vol. 1: Structure, Physiology and Development; Vol. 2: Classification and Biology. Chapman & Hall, London.

The Americas

Arnett, R.H. (1993) American Insects — A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, FL.

Arnett, R.H. & Thomas, M.C. (2001) American Beetles, Vol. I: Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Arnett, R.H., Thomas, M.C., Skelley, P.E. & Frank, J.J. (2002) American Beetles, Vol. II: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Hogue, C.L. (1993) Latin American Insects and Entomology. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Johnson, N.F. & Triplehorn, C.A. (2005) Borror and DeLong’s Introduction to the Study of Insects, 7th edn. Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA.

Merritt, R.W. & Cummins, K.W. (eds.) (1996) An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, 3rd edn. Kendall/ Hunt Publishing, Dubuque, IA.

Identification of immature insects

Chu, H.F. & Cutkomp, L.K. (1992) How to Know the Immature Insects. William C. Brown Communications, Dubuque, IA. Stehr, F.W. (ed.) (1987) Immature Insects, Vol. 1. Kendall/

Hunt Publishing, Dubuque, IA. [Deals with non-insect hexapods, apterygotes, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, plus many small orders.]

Stehr, F.W. (ed.) (1991) Immature Insects, Vol. 2. Kendall/ Hunt Publishing, Dubuque, IA. [Deals with Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, Neuroptera, Coleop- tera, Strepsiptera, Siphonaptera, and Diptera.]

Collecting and preserving methods

Brown, P.A. (1997) A review of techniques used in the preparation, curation and conservation of microscope slides at the Natural History Museum, London. The Biology Curator, Issue 10, special supplement, 34 pp.

Martin, J.E.H. (1977) Collecting, preparing, and preserving insects, mites, and spiders. In: The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, Part 1. Canada Department of Agriculture, Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa.

McGavin, G.C. (1997) Expedition Field Techniques. Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods. Expedition Advisory Centre, Royal Geographical Society, London.

New, T.R. (1998) Invertebrate Surveys for Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Upton, M.S. (1991) Methods for Collecting, Preserving, and Studying Insects and Allied Forms, 4th edn. Australian Entomological Society, Brisbane.

Upton, M.S. (1993) Aqueous gum-chloral slide mounting media: an historical review. Bulletin of Entomological Research 83, 267–74.

Museum collections

Arnett, R.H. Jr, Samuelson, G.A. & Nishida, G.M. (1993) The Insect and Spider Collections of the World, 2nd edn. Flora & Fauna Handbook No. 11. Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, FL.

Chapter 17