Figures 11.5

A variety of insect-induced galls:
Figures 11.5. A variety of insect-induced galls:

(a) two coccoid galls, each formed by a female of Apiomorpha munita (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) on the stem of Eucalyptus melliodora; (b) a cluster of galls each containing a male of A. munita on E. melliodora; (c) three oak cynipid galls formed by Cynips quercusfolii (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on a leaf of Quercus sp.; (d) rose bedeguar galls formed by Diplolepis rosae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Rosa sp.; (e) a leaf petiole of lombardy poplar, Populus nigra, galled by the aphid Pemphigus spirothecae (Hemiptera: Aphididae); (f) three psyllid galls, each formed by a nymph of Glycaspis sp. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on a eucalypt leaf; (g) willow bean galls of the sawfly Pontania proxima (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) on a leaf of Salix sp. ((d-g ) After Darlington 1975)

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  Pie chart showing the possible outcomes of releases of alien phytophagous organisms against invasive plants for the biological control of these weeds.