Figures 9.2

Fossorial fore legs of:
Figures 9.2. Fossorial fore legs of:

(a) a mole cricket of Gryllotalpa (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae); (b) a nymphal periodical cicada of Magicicada (Hemiptera: Cicadidae); and (c) a scarab beetle of Canthon (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). ((a) After Frost 1959; (b) after Snodgrass 1967; (c) after Richards & Davies 1977)

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  Diagrammatic view of a soil profile showing some typical litter and soil insects and other hexapods.
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  A plume-shaped tunnel excavated by the bark beetle Scolytus unispinosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) showing eggs at the ends of a number of galleries; enlargement shows an adult beetle.